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Abstract Title:

Insulinemic and Inflammatory Dietary Patterns Show Enhanced Predictive Potential for Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Postmenopausal Women.

Abstract Source:

Diabetes Care. 2021 Jan 8. Epub 2021 Jan 8. PMID: 33419931

Abstract Author(s):

Qi Jin, Ni Shi, Desmond Aroke, Dong Hoon Lee, Joshua J Joseph, Macarius Donneyong, Darwin L Conwell, Phil A Hart, Xuehong Zhang, Steven K Clinton, Zobeida Cruz-Monserrate, Theodore M Brasky, Rebecca Jackson, Lesley F Tinker, Simin Liu, Lawrence S Phillips, Aladdin H Shadyab, Rami Nassir, Wei Bao, Fred K Tabung

Article Affiliation:

Qi Jin

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: The empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) scores assess the insulinemic and inflammatory potentials of habitual dietary patterns, irrespective of the macronutrient content, and are based on plasma insulin response or inflammatory biomarkers, respectively. The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) assess postprandial glycemic potential based on dietary carbohydrate content. We tested the hypothesis that dietary patterns promoting hyperinsulinemia, chronic inflammation, or hyperglycemia may influence type 2 diabetes risk.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We calculated dietary scores from baseline (1993-1998) food frequency questionnaires among 73,495 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative, followed through March 2019. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for type 2 diabetes risk. We also estimated multivariable-adjusted absolute risk of type 2 diabetes.

RESULTS: During a median 13.3 years of follow-up, 11,009 case subjects with incident type 2 diabetes were diagnosed. Participants consuming the most hyperinsulinemic or proinflammatory dietary patterns experienced greater risk of type 2 diabetes; HRs (95% CI) comparing highest to lowest dietary index quintiles were: EDIH 1.49 (1.32-1.68;<0.0001) and EDIP 1.45 (1.29-1.63;<0.0001). The absolute excess incidence for the same comparison was 220 (EDIH) and 271 (EDIP) case subjects per 100,000 person-years. GI and GL were not associated with type 2 diabetes risk: GI 0.99 (0.88-1.12;= 0.46) and GL 1.01 (0.89-1.16;= 0.30).

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings in this diverse cohort of postmenopausal women suggest that lowering the insulinemic and inflammatory potentials of the diet may be more effective in preventing type 2 diabetes than focusing on glycemic foods.

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