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Article Publish Status: FREE
Abstract Title:

Eucalyptus essential oils inhibit the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages through reducing MAPK and NF-κB pathways.

Abstract Source:

BMC Complement Med Ther. 2020 Jun 29 ;20(1):200. Epub 2020 Jun 29. PMID: 32600338

Abstract Author(s):

Chen-Lung Ho, Lan-Hui Li, Yueh-Chun Weng, Kuo-Feng Hua, Tz-Chuen Ju

Article Affiliation:

Chen-Lung Ho

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Eucalyptus essential oils have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. It was reported that Eucalyptus leaves possess antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils extracted from the leaves of four different Eucalyptus species in RAW264.7 macrophages.

METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 macrophages were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf essential oils of Eucalyptus. The cell survival was quantified by an Alamar Blue assay. Nitric oxide (NO) production was assessed by Griess reaction. TNF-α and IL-6 production were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity was measured by NF-κB reporter assay. Intracellular protein expression levels were determined by Western blot. The expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase C (PKC) and NF-κB pathway were measured by western blot in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophage.

RESULTS: The essential oils extracted from Eucalyptus citriodora leaf exert the best NO inhibitory activity in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. The essential oils were fractionated into fractions A-H, and fraction F has been demonstrated to inhibit the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, NO, iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Mechanistic analysis revealed that fraction F reduced the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2, p38, PKC-α, PKC-ε and PKC-δ, and inhibited the NF-κB transcriptional activity. The chemical composition of Fraction F was determined byGC-MS.

CONCLUSIONS: The discoveries made herein could help develop innovative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with minimal side effects and strong efficacy. Clinical trials on these Eucalyptus leaf essential oils will help customize and optimize their therapeutic administration.

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