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Abstract Title:

Melatonin ameliorates the drug induced nephrotoxicity: Molecular insights.

Abstract Source:

Nefrologia. 2019 Nov 14. Epub 2019 Nov 14. PMID: 31735377

Abstract Author(s):

Zohaib Raza, Zainab Naureen

Article Affiliation:

Zohaib Raza

Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Drug-induced nephrotoxicity is a frequent adverse event that can lead to acute or chronic kidney disease and increase the healthcare expenditure. It has high morbidity and mortality incidence in 40-70% of renal injuries and accounts for 66% cases of renal failure in elderly population.

OBJECTIVE: Amelioration of drug-induced nephrotoxicity has been long soughed to improve the effectiveness of therapeutic drugs. This study was conducted to review the melatonin potential to prevent the pathogenesis of nephrotoxicity induced by important nephrotoxic drugs.

METHODS: We analyzed the relevant studies indexed in Pubmed, Medline, Scielo and Web of science to explain the molecular improvements following melatonin co-administration with special attention to oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis as key players of drug-induced nephrotoxicity.

RESULTS: A robust consensus among researchers of these studies suggested that melatonin efficiently eradicate the chain reaction of free radical production and induced the endogenous antioxidant enzymes which attenuate the lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes and subcellular oxidative stress in drug-induced nephrotoxicity. This agreement was further supported by the melatonin role in disintegration of inflammatory process through inhibition of principle pro-inflammatory or apoptotic cytokines such as TNF-α and NF-κB. These studies highlighted that alleviation of drug-induced renal toxicity is a function of melatonin potential to down regulate the cellular inflammatory and oxidative injury process and to stimulate the cellular repair or defensive mechanisms.

CONCLUSION: The comprehensive nephroprotection and safer profile suggests the melatonin to be a useful adjunct to improve the safety of nephrotoxic drugs.

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